The virtues of the First Ten Days of Thul Hijjah

Makkah friday khutbah By: ‘Abdur Rahmaan Sudais

Slaves of Allah! You are approaching virtuous days; they are the best days as the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said in an authentic hadeeth: “The best days in this life are the (first) ten days of Thual-Hijjaha. Furthermore, Allah swore by them in His Book, and when Allah swears by something, it is a reflection of its great importance. Allah says that which translates to: “By the dawn. And the nights of the ten daysa (Al Fajr:1-2). These are the first ten days of Thual-Hijjah and they include the day of `Arafah, about which the Prophet Sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “There is no day in which Allah frees more of His slaves from The Fire than the day of `Arafaha (Muslim). These ten days are concluded by the day of An Nahr (sacrifice); then follows the day of Al Qarr. The Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “The greatest days in the scale of Allah are the days of An Nahr and Al Qarra (Abu Daawood). The day of An Nahr is the major day of Hajj and the day of `Eid; the day of Al Qarr is the following day. Virtuous deeds have a magnified position during these days. The Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “There are no days in which righteous deeds are more beloved to Allah than the (first) ten days of Thual-Hijjaha (Ad-Daarimi), in another narration the companions asked: “Not even Jihaad for the sake of Allah?a he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “Not even Jihaad for the sake of Allah, except for a man who loses (sacrifices) both his wealth and life in a battlea (Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Ibn Maajah, At-Tirmidhi)

What great virtues and what a great season! What an opportunity this is to collect greater rewards than that of Jihaad, which is the best deed after sound belief and punctual salaah. This season represents a wonderful opportunity for those who want to compete in collecting rewards and a miserable loss for the idle, who shun such opportunities.

Slaves of Allah! Compete for and rush towards the forgiveness of Allah and paradise which is as wide as the heavens and earth and do not slacken and be unhurried, because the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “Being laid-back is best in every matter except for good deedsa (Abu Daawood & Al-Haakim). One must compete and march forward when it comes to working for the hereafter as Allah says that which translates as: “… So for this let the competitors competea (Al Mutaffifeen:26) and also, “.. So race to (all that is) good… (Al-Baqarah:148).

In this season, the roads leading to goodness are numerous, so do not miss out on any of them. The intelligent ones are those who exhaust themselves during this season to gain abundantly; you see many of them joining their days with their nights, continuously doing righteous deeds and hardly sleeping in order to get the most out of this season. On the other hand, you see those who put all their efforts into the attainment of worldly gains. The sad fact is that the result of all this effort would be, at most, the doubling of their capital – if indeed they do not actually lose it. As for the wise believers, nothing is dearer to them than increasing their efforts and righteous deeds that please the Lord, get them closer to Him and elevate their ranks; Allah told us what pleases Him in His Book and through His messenger; Allah will guide those who truly wish for goodness (if He Wills).

Salaah is one of the ways leading to goodness and something that Allah loves. The slave must be keen to perform it in congregation as Allah says that which translates to: “…And bow (in rukooa) with those who bowa (Al Baqarah:43), and the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said, “He who hears the Athaan (call for Salaah) and does not respond, his Salaah is not accepted, except with the congregation, unless he has a (valid) excusea (Ibn Maajah) The excuse is either fear, sickness or rain.

A slave of Allah who is guided would supply himself with optional salaah in these ten days, because it is a path to goodness and something that Allah loves. Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “Salaah is the best thing that one can do, so perform as many as you possibly cana (At-Tabaraani) and he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said: “Two light rakaaat which you may think as insignificant to add to you deeds, is better for you than possessing the whole worlda (Ibn Al Mubaarak) he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said, as narrated by Abu Hurayrah, “The son of Aadam could not do anything more beneficial for himself than salaah, reconciliation (between Muslims) and being well mannereda (Al Bayhaqi and others).

These were three examples of good deeds that lead to righteousness, salaah, reconciliation and being well mannered which are better than anything else that the son of Aadam can do, yet you see some people slight the performance of obligatory salaah, let alone optional salaah; you see them instigating disputes between people; and you see ill-mannered people who have lost out on the great reward for having a good character. So let us repent to Allah from our sins, reform our situation and improve our manners.

A woman was praised in the presence of the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam for her salaah, fasting and other good deeds; her only flaw was that she harmed her neighbours. Upon hearing the praise, the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “She is from the people of the Firea (Ahmad). In reality, the guided ones are those who do all those things which please Allah and refrain from all those things that cause His wrath, as some of the scholars said: “Wisdom is to perform what you are obliged to, in the correct manner and on time; he who is granted wisdom has attained a great deal of gooda.

Some of the Ahaadeeth which mention the virtues of optional salaah are as follows: “Prostrate as much as you can, because whenever you prostrate, Allah elevates your rank by a degree and wipes out a sin from your recorda (Muslim) and in another narration: “Whenever a slave prostrates to Allah, Allah writes a reward for him, wipes out one of his sins and elevates his rank by one degree; so prostrate as much as you cana (Ibn Maajah). The way to perform salaah is as the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam described: “The night salaah is done two (rakaaat) at a timea (Al Bukhaari) and in another narration: “The optional salaah at night and during the day is done two Rakaah at a timea (Ahmad, Ibn Maajah and others).

Slaves of Allah! Another of the paths to righteousness and fields of competition is reciting the Quraaan. The Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “The best amongst you are those who learn the Quraaan and then teach ita (Al Bukhaari) he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said: “He who recites a letter from the Book of Allah will get a reward and each of these rewards will be multiplied ten times. I do not mean `Alif Laam Meema is one letter, but rather `Alifa is a letter, `Laam is a letter and `Meema is a lettera (At Tirmidhi) and he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said: “If one of goes to the masjid and learns a verse or reads two verses from the Book of Allah, is better for him than owning two she-camels, (reading) three are better than (owning) three, (reading) four are better than (owning) four and so ona (Muslim) and also, “Let him who wants to attain love for Allah and His messenger read from The Book of Allaha.

Another of the fields of goodness is fasting as the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam encouraged us to “Fast on Mondays and Thursdaysa (Ahmad & Nasaaai) and “Fast the day of `Arafaha (Muslim) also: “Fast like the Prophet Daawood (who fasted every other day)a (Bukhaari & Muslim). I do not know of any specific reference that relates to any special virtue for fasting these ten days in particular, but, having said this I would add that one should still fast during these days because of the general texts encouraging good deeds during these ten days.

Another way is giving in charity; `Abdur Rahmaan Ibn Saburah, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “(Every day) An Angel calls out in the heavens saying, `O Allah! Bless and compensate for the wealth of the one who spends (for your sake) and ruin the wealth of the one who holds back (from spending)aa (At-Tabaraani) Also he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said to Bilaal, may Allah be pleased with him: “Spend (charitably) O Bilaal! – and do not fear that Allah will decrease your provision (due to your spending)a and he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam addressed Asmaaa, may Allah be pleased with her, saying: “Spend (charitably) and donat count (i.e. donat be cautious in spending in this manner) otherwise your provisions will become limited and donat hold back (from spending in charity) otherwise your provisions will be held backa (Bukhaari & Muslim) The Messenger of Allah sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said: “I swear that these three things are true: That giving in charity does not decrease the wealth of the slave ……..a (Ahmad & Tirmidhi). Giving in charity enables one to be among the seven categories of people who will be protected under the shade of the Throne of Allah; regarding this, the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “… and a man who gave charity so secretly that even his left hand would not know how much his right hand had spenta (Bukhaari & Muslim) also, “Charity given in secret extinguishes the wrath of Allaha. One of the best forms of charitable giving is to give someone a drink of water as the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “The best form of charity is giving someone water (to drink)a (Ahmad, An Nasaaai and Ibn Maajah).

O slaves of Allah! One of the best deeds in these days is to initiate Hajj as a way of drawing closer to Allah and fasting the day of `Arafah for those who are not performing Hajj. Allah willing we will talk about the virtues of Hajj in another Khutbah. Offering a sacrificial animal is also one of the most virtuous deeds that one can perform. The Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “He who does not offer a sacrifice while being financially able to, let him not come close to our masjid (i.e. pray with us)a and he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said: “When the ten days (Thual-Hijjah) have begun and one of you intends to offer a sacrifice, then let him not cut any of his hair or remove anything from his skina (Muslim) in another narration he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “Let him not cut anything from his hair or nails until he sacrificesa (Ad Daarimi).

These are examples of virtuous deeds, so take advantage of them; beware of laziness and neglect and know that Allah has favoured certain seasons over others, so let us take advantage of these opportunities and increase our righteous deeds; perhaps Allah will forgive us for our sins and shortcomings.

The Aadaab of Jumu’ah

The Aadaab of Jumuah

  1. Every Muslim should make preparations for jumuah from Thursday. After the asr salaat of Thursday, he should make a lot of istighfaar. He should clean his clothes and keep them ready. If he does not have any perfume in his house, then if it is possible he should try and obtain some and keep it ready so that he will not get distracted with these things on jumuah. The pious people of the past have stated that the person to receive the most benefit on Friday will be that person who waits for it and who makes preparations for it from Thursday. The most unfortunate person will be he who does not even know as to when Friday will fall, so much so that he will ask the people in the morning as to which day this is. Some pious people used to go and stay in the jaame musjid from the night of jumuah in order to make full preparations for the following day. (Ihyaa ul-Uloom, vol. 1, page 161)

  2. On the day of jumuah, ghusl should be made and the hair of the head and the rest of the body should be thoroughly washed. It is also very virtuous to use the miswaak on this day.

  3. After making ghusl, a person should wear the best clothing that he possesses, and if possible he should also apply some perfume. He should also clip his nails.

  4. He should try and go very early to the jaame musjid. The earlier a person goes, the more reward he will receive. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

    “On the day of jumuah, the angels stand at the entrance of that musjid in which jumuah salaat is to be offered. They write down the name of the person who enters the musjid first, and thereafter the name of the person who follows, and they continue doing this. The person who entered first will receive the reward of sacrificing a camel in the path of Allah, the one who followed him will get the reward of sacrificing a cow, thereafter a chicken, thereafter the reward of giving an egg as charity in the path of Allah. Once the khutbah commences, the angels close the register and begin listening to the khutbah.”
    — (Bukhari and Muslim)

    In olden times, the roads and alleys used to be extremely busy in the mornings and at fajr time. All the people used to go so early to the jaame musjid and there used to be such a large crowd that it used to look like the days of eid. Later, when this habit was given up, people began saying that this is the first innovation in Islam. After writing this, Imam Ghazali rahmatullahi alayh says:

    “Aren’t the Muslims ashamed of themselves that the Jews and Christians go so early in the morning to their synagogues and churches on Saturdays and Sundays. Those who are businessmen go so early to the bazaars in order to do their buying and selling. Why dont the Muslims do the same?”

    The reality of the situation is that the Muslims have totally reduced the value of this blessed day. They do not even know what day this is, and what a high status it has. How sad it is that the day which was more valuable than eid in the eyes of Muslims of the past, which Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was proud of and the day which was not granted to the previous nations has become so dishonoured at the hands of Muslims today and it is such a great ingratitude to the favour of Allah Taala that the consequence of all this can be seen with our very eyes.

  5. By going walking for the jumuah salaat, one gets the reward of fasting for one year for every step that he takes. (Tirmidhi)

  6. On Fridays, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam used to recite Surah Alif Laam Meem Sajdah and Surah Hal Ataa, in the fajr salaat. These Surahs should therefore be occassionally recited in the fajr salaat on Fridays. Occassionally they should be left out so that people do not regard their recitation as wajib.

  7. For the jumuah salaat, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam used to recite the following Surahs : al-Jumuah and al-Munaafiqun, or al-Ala and al-Ghaashiyah.

  8. There is a lot of reward in reciting Surah Kahf either before the jumuah salaat or after it. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

    “The person who recites Surah Kahf on Fridays, a nur will appear for him from below the arsh as high as the skies. This light will help him in the darkness of the day of resurrection. And all the sins which he may have committed from the last Friday till this Friday will be forgiven.”
    –(Sharh Sifrus-Saaadah)

    The ulama have written that this Hadith refers to minor sins because major sins are not forgiven without making taubah.

  9. There is more reward in reciting durood on Fridays than on other days. It has been mentioned in the Hadith that durood should be recited abundantly on Fridays.

Source: The Truth : The Aadaab of Jumuah

Validity Of Two Rakaats During Khutbah of Jum’ah

Validity Of Two Rakaats During Khutbah of Jum’ah

As Salaamu Alaikum

Quran & Sunnah Panacea For All Muslim Disputes:
Every Friday, the scenario is the same in most masjids of United Kingdom: Latecomers offer two Rakaats while the Imam delivers the Khuthbah. In some Masjids, this action is frowned upon, in others, it is discouraged; yet in other Masjids, it… What is the correct hukm on offering two rakaats during the Khutbah of Jum’ah?The golden rule when we fall into disputes among ourselves in matters of Deen is to return to Qur’an and the Sunnah for a resolution. The Qur’an says: “O you who believe! obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and the Messenger if you do believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is best and most suitable for final determination.” (Q.4:59).

Ahaadith Narrated On The Issue.
  1. Abu Sa’eed (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that a man entered the masjid on the day of Jum’ah3 while the Prophet (S) was delivering the khutbah on the minbar, and he ordered him to pray two rakaats. (Reported. by Ibn Majah and others).
  2. That a man came on the day of Jum’ah looking shabbily while the Prophet (s) was delivering the khutbah, and he ordered him to pray two rakaaats ( Reported by AtTirmidhi).
  3. Jaabir (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that a man came on the day of Jum’ah while the Messenger of Allah (s) was delivering the khutbah. He said. “Did you pray?” The man answered: “No.” He then commanded him : “Pray two rakaats.” (Reported by the Jamaa’ah, lbn Majah, Tirmidhi, and several others.)
  4. In one narration, it is mentioned “If one of you comes on the day of Jum’ah while the Imaam is delivering the khutbah, let him pray two rakaats lightly and quickly.” Reported by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawood).
  5. In another narration:”If one of you enters a masjid, let him not sit until he prays two rakaats.” (Reported by the Jamaa’ah). These ahaadith clearly indicate the shar’ee4 validity of praying two rakaats during the khutbah of Jum’ah.
Legal opinions On The Issue
  1. The first group of scholars, Imaams Shaafi’ee, Ahmad, Maalik in one ruling of his, and others held that two rakaats prayed during the khutbah of Jum’ah is permissible, citing the above-mentioned ahaadith as their proof
  2. The second group of scholars, AthThawree and the learned of Koofah5 held that no one should pray while the Khutbah is being delivered. This view was also held by Abu Haneefah, Maalik in another ruling of his, and most of the salaf (righteous predecessors) from among the Sahaabah6 and Taabi’een7 including Ibn Abbaas, Ibn Umar, Ali, Qataadah, and ‘Ataa’.
Reason For Difference Of Opinions
The opinion of the second group of scholars is based on the reasoning that the Prophetic command to pry two rakaats during the khutbah on Jum’ah was addressed specifically to Sulaayk, the name of the man mentioned in the above-cited ahaadith, due to his impoverished condition (see hadith b above) and therefore does not apply to others unlike him. He was ordered by the Prophet (s) to pray so that people would see his poor condition and respond to his needs by charity and so forth.
Refutation of Those Who Prohibit Prayer During Khutbah
Scholars rebut that the origin of the hukm has nothing to do with specificity, that is, specific reference to one individual. Also, the Prophetic command to Sulayk to pray during the khutbah for the sake of charity does not necessarily prohibit the permissibility of prayer offered during the khutbah. This statement is supported by ahaadith (d, e,). in the words of the Prophet (s): “If one of you comes… ” is a general address to anyone who finds himself in that situation on Jum’ah. Argument: The ayah8 (“When the Qur’an is read, listen to it,” Q.7:204) supports the view of the second group of scholars Reply: Khutbah and Quran are two different things. The issue concerns praying during the Khutbah -not reading of the Quran or listening to it:Argument: The hadith (“If you say to your companion `keep quiet.” while the Imaam is giving the khutbah, you have indulged in idleness.” Agreed Upon) is proof for the second group.

Reply: The prohibition in the hadith is against cross-talk during the delivery of the khutbah not Salaah. The two of them cannot be equated so that the prohibition of one is necessarily a prohibition of the other.

Argument The following hadith is proof for the second group (A man [entered the masjid] making a pathway dough the necks of the people on Jum’ah while the Prophet (s) was delivering his khutbah. He said to him: “Sit! You have caused disturbance.” Reported Abu Dawood). The proof lies in the fact that the Prophet (s) ordered him to sit and not pray.

Reply: A possible interpretation of the hadith is that the Prophetic order to sit and not pray the two rakaats was a specific command to that particular individual who made himself a nuisance by annoying people who were already seated in the masjid. There are other interpretations of the hadith, but the fact remains is that it is not a clear proof to support the second group of scholars in their prohibition of pray during the khutbah.

Argument: The following hadith is also used as proof by the second group of scholars (“If one of you enters the masjid while the Imaam is on the minbar there is no salah nor speech until the Imam finishes.” (Reported by At -Tabaraani).

Reply: The hadith reported by At Tabaraani is da’eef (weak). The hadith scholar Abu Haatim describes it as “rejected” (munkar).

Argument: The following hadith is also cited as proof (A man came while the Messenger of Allah was delivering the khutbah and the Prophet (s) said to him: “Stand and pray two rakaats!” Then he stopped his delivery of the khutbah until the man had finished his prayer. (Reported by Ad Daaraqutni)

Reply: This hadith is inauthentic. As a matter of fact, Daaraqutni himself weakened the hadith, saying that it is either mu’dil9 or mursal10

Argument: When the Prophet (S) preoccupied himself by speaking with Sulayk, it nullified the obligation of listening to the khutbah at that point in time. Ibn Al-Arabi said: “This is the strongest argument of theirs.”

Reply: According to Ibn Hajar, “This is actually their weakest argument, since when the Prophet spoke to Sulayk he returned to delivering the khutbah while Sulayk occupied himself with the Prophetic command of performing the two rakaats. And it is authenticated that he did so during the khutbah of the Prophet (s).

Argument: Scholars are in agreement that the Salaah upon entering the masjid (At_ Tahiyyah) is not a right upon the Imaam. If that is the case with the Imam, that is, leaving out that prayer upon entering the masjid, then it must be even more so upon the follower to leave out that prayer if he enters the masjid while the Imam is giving the khutbah.

Reply: This qiyaas11 is invalid since it contradicts unambiguous ahaadith of the Prophet (S) on the matter of offering two rakaats during khutbah of Jum’ah as we have mentioned above (see hadith c, d, e)

Argument: The early scholars of Al-Madinah during the period of the salaf and the view of Umar, Uthman, and others among the Salmbah is sufficient proof to establish the hukm of prohibition of pray during khutbah.

Reply: This view of the majority of the salaf does not tantamount to ijmaa (consensus) so that it can be considered as shar’i proof. There are many among them who hold the view of permissibiltiy on prayer during the khutbah, such as Abu Sa’eed, Al-Hasan, Makhool, Abu Thawr, and so forth. Further more the majority view contradicts authentic ahaadith and they cannot be considered shar’i proof .

CONCLUSION
Preferred View: The opinion of the first group of scholars who held that it is Sunnah to perform two rakaats during the khutbah of Jum’ah based an authenticated ahaadith of the Prophet(S) narrated on the issue. No one has the right under Shari’ah to prohibit someone from offering this prayer if he enters the masjid while the khutbah is been given. It should be noted, however, that there is a certain adaab or etiquette in performing this two rakaats:
  1. That it should be performed lightly and quickly.
  2. It should not be offered at the expense of causing disturbance to others. This adaab is gleaned frorn the following hadiths:
    1. The Prophet (s) said: “If one of you comes[to the masjid] and the Imaam is delivering the khutbah, let him pray two short, light rakaats.” (Reported by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Davwod).
    2. A man came [to the masjid and proceeded to] walk trough the necks of the people on the day of Jum’ah. The Prophet (s) said to him: ” Sit! You have disturbed {others)”. (Reported by Abu Dawood and An-Nasaa’i.)

Footnotes to Article

  1. Hukm – Islamic legal ruling on an issue
  2. Deen – Religion; more appropriately the way of life of Islam.
  3. Jum’ah-The day of Friday, the last day of the Islamic calendar week
  4. Shar’ee – Pertaining to the legality of Islaamic laws
  5. Koofah – An ancient city of leaming in Iraq.
  6. Sahaabah – Companions of the Prophet (s)
  7. Taabi’een -Followers, or the generation after the Sahaabah.
  8. Ayah -Verse of the Qur’an
  9. Mu’dil – “Problematic”, a type of weak hadith
  10. Mursal “Incompletely transmitted”, a type of weak hadith

Qiyaas Juristic analogy, a legal proof of Islamic law agreed upon by most scholars.

source: Minhaj al-Muslim