I have a brother who is contemplating a career change primarily because he would not be able to hold a teaching position at the elementary school level if he had to leave every week for Jumu?a. I have apparently been told that the Syrian Hanafi position is that Jumu?a is not mandatory in the West because there is no Muslim ruler or established Islamic authority.
The position of the mainstream and majority of scholars, both from the Subcontinent and the Arab world, is that the condition of having a Muslim ruler sultan in order to establish the Friday prayer is not a condition in of itself; rather, a means to ensure that there is no dispute regarding the establishment of the Friday prayer.
The renowned Hanafi Jurist faqih, Imam al-Kasani Allah have mercy on him explains in his Bada?i al-Sana?i that the condition of having the Sultan?s permission is to avoid any possible disputes and arguments, because the Friday jumu?a prayer is offered in a large congregating and to lead such a massive congregation in prayer is indeed a great privilege; hence, it may lead those who like to be in the limelight into competing and arguing with one another to acquire the post of leading the Friday prayer. For this reason, appointing the right person to lead the Friday prayer was left to the discretion of the Sultan, so that he may appoint whomever he feels fit for this esteemed position. As a result, there would be no dispute, for others would be forced into obeying the Sultan and may even fear his punishment. Bada?i al-Sana?i, 1/261
He further states that the above is when the Sultan or his representative is present. However, if the Sultan was not able to attend for one reason or another and the time of Jumu?a Salat came in, then there is nothing wrong in the congregation uniting in the appointment of an Imam and praying behind him. This is supported by what Imam Muhammad has narrated that when Sayyiduna Uthman Allah be pleased with him was surrounded by the enemies, people appointed Sayyiduna Ali Allah be pleased with him to lead them in the Friday prayer. ibid
In light of the above explanation and in light of the explanation given by many other jurists, it is not a condition of the Friday prayer that it be performed in a Muslim land. In the absence of a Sultan or a Muslim ruler, it is completely permissible for the Muslims to choose someone to lead the Friday prayer and such a Friday prayer would be considered valid.
When the Friday prayer is considered valid, it becomes obligatory upon each and every Muslim male to attend the prayer unless there is a dire and genuine excuse. Missing the Friday prayer without a legally accepted excuse would be extremely sinful.
Allah Most High says:
?O you who believe! When the call for Friday prayer is made, hasten towards the remembrance of Allah Prayer and Khutba and leave all transactions. This is best for you if you know.?
— Sura al-Jumu?a, V: 9
The above is the position of most contemporary Ulama. What you have been told regarding the Syrian Hanafi position, it is incorrect; rather, many top Syrian Ulama concur with the position of the Subcontinent Fuqaha, in that the Friday prayer is obligatory even in the West. I myself once heard Shaykh Muhammad Sa?id Ramadhan al-Buti Allah preserve him refuting quite vigorously the isolated position of Jumu?a not being obligatory in the West.
Hence, your brother will be doing the right thing by looking for an alternative job if he is unable to offer his Jumu?a prayer at his current post. It will not be permitted to take up a career where one is regularly unable to offer one?s Friday prayer, even in the West.
And Allah knows best
Muhammad ibn Adam
Leicester , UK
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.
First of all, it goes without saying that every committed Muslim is supposed to pay his parents, especially his mother, due respect. One should try to show dutifulness to one?s parents, even if they happened to be non-Muslims, let alone being Muslims. What Islam goes against is to imitate non-Muslims by marking a special occasion such as celebrating the Mother?s Day in a way that shows that mothers do not deserve due respect and care save on this very day. If we are going to make the whole year a Mother?s Day, then Islam welcomes celebrating the occasion with open arms.
Indeed, Muslim scholars have maintained various opinions regarding the issue. Here below we will attempt to furnish you with Juristic views as regard this issue:
First of all, Sheikh Faysal Mawlawi, deputy chairman of the European Council for Fatwa and Research, states:
Dutifulness to parents, especially the mother, and treating them kindly is an act of worship enjoined in both the Qur?an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). Being dutiful to parents is not confined to a specific time. It is an obligation that should be observed every time, as all people commonly know.
Yet, the Mother?s Day, as it?s known nowadays is a Western habit. The Westerners specified a day and called it the Mother?s Day. On that day sons and daughters show gratefulness to their mothers and offer them presents. It has become part of important feasts in the West, whereas we Muslims have no other festivals except the Lesser and the Greater Bairams. Any other celebrations are deemed mere occasions or anniversaries; and this is applied to the Mother?s Day.
The Mother?s Day implies paying more attention and exerting more effort in expressing gratitude to mothers. So there is nothing wrong in that.
However, there are two reservations worth mentioning; first, considering the Mother?s Day a feast; second, confining the task of showing dutifulness to mothers to that specific day, giving implication that throughout the whole year, just only one day is for showing love to parents. If such two anomalous points are addressed, then there is nothing wrong in considering the Mother?s Day a chance to give more care to mothers.
Thus, we may take the Mother?s Day as a chance to lay more emphasis on our duty towards our mothers, as Islam enjoins us, because dutifulness to parents is a genuine Islamic teaching. But Muslims, in doing that, should never deviate from the Islamic teachings, they should do things in Islamic manners, not in Western manners. Hence, they would not be imitating the non-Islamic habits of the West.
Hence, viewed in juristic perspective, we can say that celebrating the Mother?s day is controversial among the contemporary scholars. While a group of them consider it haram (unlawful) as a kind of blind imitation of the Western non-Islamic habits, which have no benefit for Muslims, another group see it halal (lawful) on condition that showing gratitude and dutifulness to parents should not be confined to that day only.
Moreover, the well known erudite scholar Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi states:
The Arab tend to blindly follow the Western in their celebration of the Mother?s Day, without trying to understand the wisdom behind inventing such an occasion.
When the European found that children do not deal properly towards their parents nor give them their due right, they resorted to specifying an annual occasion for children to remedy the situation. But in Islam, mothers are to be given due respect and love every time, not only one day a year. For example, when one goes out, he kisses one?s mother?s hand seeking her pleasure and blessing.
A Muslim must not allow any gap between him and his mother, he must offer her presents every time. This indicates that Muslims can dispense with such an occasion, the Mother?s Day. Unlike the case in the West, where it?s a vogue for some children to show indifference to their mothers? feelings, and, what?s more, it is so common to see some parents being dragged to infirmaries (as their kids have no time for them), dutifulness to parents in Islam, alongside with worshipping Allah, is a sacred duty.
In this concern, Almighty Allah says: (And We have commended unto man kindness toward parents. His mother beareth him with reluctance, and bringeth him forth with reluctance, and the bearing of him and the weaning of him is thirty months, till, when he attaineth full strength and reacheth forty years, he saith: My Lord! Arouse me that I may give thanks for the favor wherewith Thou hast favored me and my parents, and that I may do right acceptable unto Thee. And be gracious unto me In the matter of my seed. Lo! I have turned unto Thee repentant, and lo! I am of those who surrender (unto Thee).) (Al-Ahqaf 46: 15)
Reflecting on the aforementioned Qur?anic verse, we find it stressing both parents? right, but reviewing the following verses we find them paying special care to the mother and tackling the hardships she suffers in pregnancy, fosterage and rearing children.
In this verse, Almighty Allah informs man of the debt he owes his mother since he was a fetus, passing by the process of childbirth, infancy, childhood until he comes of age. A child normally forgets the hardship which his mother underwent during pregnancy. Hence Almighty Allah draws his attention to such hardships, laying emphasis on her great status in Islam.
Finally, Dr. `Abdul Fattah `Ashoor, professor of Qur?an Exegisis at Al-Azhar University, concludes:
Holding celebrations in honoring others and commemorating anniversaries are neither feasts nor Islamic. But one may seize any chance to express gratitude to those who deserve it. This is how we should consider the Mother?s Day. The mother has a special place in the Islamic culture, and all other civilized cultures. So it is something good to do anything to please her and show gratefulness to her.
So dedicating a day to showing good feelings towards parents, especially the mother, is by no means blameworthy as it does not contradict the Islamic teachings, nor can it be merely considered a form of joining the Western vogue of making celebrations. Conversely, it is a kind of devotion to Allah?s orders that we should be dutiful to our parents.
Yawm al-Arafat: The day of Arafat
The 9th day of Dhul-Hijjah is the day of Arafat. It is this day when the pilgrims gather on the mountain plain of Arafat, praying and supplicating to their Lord. The day of Arafat holds great importance in Islam since this is the Day when Allah completed his revelation on His Messenger (SAW).
It is reported in the Sahhayn (i.e. Sahh al-Bukhar and Sahh Muslim), from Umar Ibn al-Khattab (RA) that a Jewish man said to him:
O Amr al-Muminn (O head of the Muslims)! There is a verse in the Qur`an, which if was revealed on us, the Jews, we would have taken that day as an Eid (festival). Umar asked: Which verse? He said:
“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” [Surah al-Maidah (5): 3]
Umar (RA) said: “We know on which day and in which place was this verse revealed to Allah’s Messenger (SAW). It was when he was standing in Arafat on a Friday.”
Arafat is the day on which Allah took the covenant from the progeny of Adam (alaihis-salm), it was reported that Ibn Abbas (radhi Allahu anhu) narrated: The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu alaihi wa-sallam) related:
(When Allah created Adam (AS) Allah took covenant from him in a place Na’man on the day of Arafat, then He extracted from him all the descendants who would be born until the end of the world, generation after generation, and spread them out in front of Him in order to take a covenant from them also. He spoke to them face to face saying:
“Am I not your Lord?”
And they all replied: “Yes, we testify to it”. Allah then explained why He had all of mankind bear witness that He was their Creator and only true God worthy of worship. He said:
“That was in case you (mankind) should say on the Day of Resurrection, ‘Surely, we were unaware of this. We had no idea that You, Allah, were our Lord. No one told us that we were only supposed to worship you.”
[(Sahah by Shaikh al-Albana in Silsilah al-Ahadath as-Sahahah vol: 4, no: 1623]
Fasting on the day of Arafat
Fasting on the day of Arafat is a true blessing and a means of great forgiveness for all who undertakes it and there is no doubt that we should all try our best to fast on this blessed day which is Tomorrow (Sunday the 7th)
In the UK Sehri ends (20 mins before Fajr starts) at 5.55 am and Iftar will be at sunrise at 3:51 pm.
The Prophet (saw) says: “Be content with the fact that Allah will expiate for your sins for a whole year before the day of Arafat and the year after the day of Arafat”! [Saheeh Muslim]
“There is no day on which Allah frees more people from the Fire than the day of Arafat. He comes close and expresses His pride to the angels saying, ‘What do these people want?” [Saheeh Muslim]
However whoever is at Arafat as a pilgrim then fasting is not expected of him as the Prophet (SAW) stopped at Arafat to eat.
The tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah is the greatest day of Hajj. It is known as Yawm an-Nahr (the day of Sacrifice), since it marks the ending of the major rite of Hajj – the Sacrifice. And it is on this day that the Muslims commemorate the bounties and blessings of Allah. It was recorded in a Hadath by Imam Ahmad (in his Musnad vol: 4, no: 350) that the day of Nahr is the most virtuous day to Allah. The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:
“The greatestday of Hajj (Pilgrimage) is the Day of an-Nahr (Slaughtering).” [(Sahah) by Shaikh al-Albana in Irwa al-Ghalal (no: 1101). Abu Dawad no: 1945]
Imam Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728H) said:
“The most excellent day of the week is the day of Jumuah (Friday), by the agreement of the Scholars. And the most excellent day of the year is the day of an-Nahr. Some of them said that it is the day of Arafat. However, the first opinion is the correct one, since it is related in the Sunan collections that the Prophet (SAW) said:
“The most excellent days with Allah is the day of an-Nahr, then the day of al-Qarr (the day that the Muslims reside in Mina).”
[(Sahah) by Shaikh al-Albana in Irwa al-Ghalal (no: 2018). Related by Abu Dawad no: 1765].” [Majma al-Fatawa vol: 25, pp. 288]
The day of An-Nahr is also known as ‘Eid al-Adha’ meaning the festival of Sacrifice and it is one of the two festivals which Allah has granted to the Ummah of Prophet (SAW). Anas (RA) narrated, Allah’s Messenger (SAW) came to Medina and the people of Medina in the days of Jahiliyyah had two days of play and amusement. So, Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said:
“I came to you and you had in Jahiliyyah, two days of play and amusement. Allah has replaced something better for you. The Day of an-Nahr and the day of al-Fitr.” [(Sahah) by Hafidh Ibn Hajr in Bulagh al-Maram. Related by Musnad Ahmad vol: 3, no: 103]
The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said:
“The day of al-Fitr, and the day of an-Nahr, and the days of at-Tashraq (the three days after an-Nahr) are our days of Eid (festivity); and they are days of eating and drinking.” [(Sahah) by Shaikh al-Albana in Sahah al-Jama (no: 8192). Related by Musnad Ahmad (no: 1945)]
Glorifying Allah with Takbar: (Takbar al-Muqayyid):
From the day of Arafat until the Asr prayer of the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah, one should make Takbar after every obligatory Salat. Ibn Aba Shaybah relates that Ala (RA) used to make the Takbar beginning after the Fajr prayer on the day of Arafat, until after the Asr prayer on the last day of at-Tashraq. [(Sahah) by Shaikh al-Albana in al-Irwa. Related by Ibn Aba Shaybah in al-Musannaf]
Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:
“The most correct saying concerning the Takbar – that which the majority of the Salaf (Pious Predecessors), and the Scholars from the Companions and Imams were upon – is to begin making the Takbar from Fajr (dawn) on the day of Arafat up until the last day of at-Tashraq (the thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah), after every Prayer.” [Majma al-Fatawa (24/220)]
Imam al-Khattaba (rahimahullah) (d. 456H) said:
“The wisdom behind saying the Takbar in these days is that in the times of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic ignorance), they used to slaughter for their Taghats (false objects of worship). So the Takbars were prescribed in order to indicate that the act of slaughtering is directed to Allah alone, and by mentioning only His Name.” [Fath al-Bara]
As regards to the actual wording of the Takbars, then nothing authentic has been related from the Messenger of Allah. However, the following have been reported from the Sahabah:
1. Ibn Mas’ad (RA): Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illa Allah, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa lillahil-Hamd. [(Sahah) Irwa al-Ghalal (650), Daraqutne, Ibn Shaibah]
(Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, There is none worthy of worship except Allah. Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest and to Allah belongs all praises)
2. Ibn Abbas (RA): Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa lillahil-Hamd; Allahu Akbar wa-ajal, Allahu akbaru ala mahadana.
[(sahah) – Bayhaqa (3/315)] (Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest and to Allah belongs all praises. Allah is the Greatest to that which He has guided us to)
3. Salman (RA) : Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar kabara.
[(sahah) – Bayhaqa (3/316)] (Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest)
“Increase in these days with Tahlil, Takbar and Tamhid. (Takbar al-Mutlaq). And mention the name of Allah on the appointed Days.” [Sarah al-Hajj (22): 28]
This verse has been explained (by some) to mean the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. Scholars consider it desirable to increase Dhikr (remembrance of Allah) in these days, because the Messenger of Allah (SAW) is reported to have said:
“There are no days that are greater to Allah or in which deeds are more beloved to Him than these ten days, so increase your Tahlil, Takbar and Tamhid during these days.” [Musnad Ahmad]
Tahlil, Takbar and Tamhid mean saying ‘La ilaha illa Allah’, ‘Allahu Akbar’ and ‘al-Hamdu lillah’, respectively.
Ishaq narrates from the scholars of the Tabi’an that in these ten days they used to say: Allahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar; La-ilaha-ill-Allah; wallahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar; Wa-lillahil-hamd.
It is a beloved act to raise the voice when saying the Takbar in the markets, the houses, the streets, the masjids and other places, because of the saying of Allah Most High in Sarah al-Hajj verse 37:
“…that you may magnify Allah for His Guidance to you…”
Imam Bukhara (rahimahullah) said in the book of al-Idayn in the chapter of the Virtue of good) deeds during the days of Tashraq, Ibn Umar and Abu Hurayrah (RA) would go out in the marketplace during the ten days and say Takbar, and the people would say Takbar when they said Takbar. [Sahah al-Bukhara]
The Sunnah is to say the Takbar individually. The saying of Takbar in congregation, i.e., everyone pronouncing the Takbar with one voice, is not permissible since this has not been transmitted (to us) from the early generations of the Sahabah and those who followed their ways. This is applicable for all Dhikr and supplications, except if the person doesn’t know what to say. In that case he may repeat after someone else until he learns (the words to be said).
Narrated al-Bara (Allah be pleased with him) that he heard the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) delivering a khutbah saying: “The first thing to be done on this day (first day of Eid-ul-Adha) is to pray; and after returning from the prayer we slaughter our sacrifices (in the name of Allah), and whoever does so, he has acted according to our sunnah. (Kitaabul-Eidayn, Bukhari)
Eid-ul-Adha is celebrated on the 10th through 12th day of Dhil Hijjah, the 12th month of the lunar calendar. Many of the rituals related to the Eid directly commemmorate the sacrifices of Hadrat Ibraham (alayhis-salaam) and his family for the sake of Allah. On the way to the Eid prayer, while waiting for it and on the way back from the prayer one should recite the following takbeer as much as possible:
Allaahu akbar – Allaahu akbar – Laa ilaaha illallaahu – wal-laahu akbar Allaahu akbar wa lil-laahil-hamd
(Allah is the Greatest; Allah is the Greatest; There is no god except Allah; And Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest and for Allah is all praise.)
It is the tradition of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) to go to the prayer by one way and return by another. The takbeer-e-tashreeq above is also to be recited after every fard prayer beginning from the Fajr prayer of the 9th to the Asr prayer of the 13th of Dhil Hijjah (23 times in all).
The following actions are also sunnah on the day of Eid:
- To clean the teeth with miswaak;
- To take a bath;
- To adorn oneself and dress in the best clothes that are available and are permitted in Shariaah;
- To use perfume;
- To rise early and go to the prayer grounds early;
- To walk to the prayer grounds if possible and to recite the takbeer above;
- Nothing is to be eaten before the prayer of Eid-ul-Adha, unlike Eid-ul-Fitr;
- No (nafl) prayers should be prayed at the Eid prayer ground, neither before or after the Eid prayer.
Procedure of the Eid Prayer
Eid-ul-Adha prayer consists of two rakaaah in congregation. The procedure of the prayer is as follows:
First, make the niyyah for the Eid salaah:
Nawaytu an usallee rakaatayil-waajibi salaata eidil-adhaa maaa takbeeraatin waajibatin
(I intend to pray 2 rakaaah of waajib prayer of Eid-ul-Adha with the (extra) waajib takbeeraat )
Then the Imam says Allahu akbar (and the followers do so after him). Then the hands are folded as in other prayers and the thanaa is recited:
Subhaanakal-laahum-ma wa bi hamdika wa tabaarakas-muka wa taaaalaa jad-duka wa laa ilaaha ghairuk
(O Allah! Glory and Praise are for You, and blessed is Your name, and exalted is Your majesty; and there is no god except You.)
Then Allahu akbar is said 3 times, every time raising the hands to the ears and dropping them except the last time when they are folded. Then the Imam recites the Taaawwudh and Bismillah quietly and then recites Surah Fatiha and another Surah. Then rukua and sujood are performed as in other prayers. In the second rakaaah, the Imam recites Bismillah quietly and then Surah Fatiha and another Surah loudly and then says Allahu akbar 3 times, each time raising the hands to the ears and dropping them. Then Allahu akbar is said a fourth time and the congregation goes into rukua and finishes the prayer as any other. After the Eid prayer is completed, the Imam stands up and gives two khutbah in Arabic, sitting between them, as was the practice of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam).
An alternate method of performing twelve extra takbeeraat during the prayer, instead of the six extra that are described above, is also permissible: 7 and then 5 extra takbeeraat are performed during the first and second rakaaah respectively (Umdatus-Saalik, Shafia madhhab).
Selected Traditions from Sahih-al-Bukhari: The Chapter of the Two Eids.
-> Narrated Aisha (Radiyallaahu anhaa) that Allahas Messenger (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) said: “There is an Eid for every nation and this is our Eid.”
-> Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (Radiyallaahu anhu) that Allahas Messenger (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) used to offer the prayer of Eid-ul-Adha and Eid-ul-Fitr and then deliver the khutbah after the prayer.
-> Narrated Ibn Abbaas (Radiyallaahu anhu) that the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) said: “No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these (first 10 days of Dhil Hijjah).” Then some companions of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) said, “Not even jihaad?” He replied, “Not even jihaad, except that of a man who does it by putting himself and his property in danger (for Allahas sake) and does not return with any of those things.”
-> Narrated Jaabir ibn Abdullah (Radiyallaahu anhu): On the day of Eid, the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) used to return (from the prayer) through a way different from that by which he went.
-> Narrated Urwa on the authority of Aisha (Radiyallaahu anhaa) that on the days of Minaa (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhil Hijjah) Abu Bakr (Radiyallaahu anhu) came to her while two girls were beating the tambourine and the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) was lying covered with his clothes. Abu Bakr (Radiyallaahu anhu) scolded them and the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) uncovered his face and said to Abu Bakr, “Leave them, for these days are the days of Eid and the days of Minaa.”
According to Imam Abu Hanifah, the slaughtering is a wajib. For Abu Hanifah, a wajib is more than a sunnah and less than a fard. The other Imams consider a wajib to mean fard (obligatory).
Therefore, he sees that it is wajib for those people who are capable to do it according to the hadith, “Whoever has the ability to slaughter and he doesnat, then let him not come near our prayer area.” So Abu Hanifa took from this hadith that it was a wajib. If we canat consider it as a wajib, at least it is a sunnah muakkadah and in it is a great bounty.
Its time of occurrence is after Salat al-Eid, meaning the earliest salat ul-Eid that has been performed in your area. After which, it is permissible to make the sacrifice. If it is done before that, it is not considered an Eid sacrifice.
For the Prophet (blessings of Allah and peace be upon him) commanded the one who performs the slaughtering before the Eid prayer to consider his sheep as a “sheep of meat” and not as a “sheep of worship”. Even if he gave all of it in charity he will only be rewarded for it the reward of charity, not the reward for slaughtering for the Eid. For slaughtering is a an act of worship and the acts of worship if they have a fixed time and condition then it is not befitting for it to be performed early or late, like the daily prayers. Is it permissible for you to pray Dhuhr before its appointed time? So it is with the slaughtering of the Eid, it has its specified time too.
Some people in certain places slaughter the night before the Eid. This is incorrect and a misplacement of the Sunnah, as well as a loss of the reward that it contains. If this person realizes his mistake in time, especially if he made a vow to slaughter (then it is obligatory for him), he should repeat it in the correct time after the Eid prayer. It is also permissible to slaughter on the second and third days of the Eid.
It is best to slaughter before the sun reaches its zenith. If the time for Dhuhr comes and he has not performed the slaughter it is better to wait till the second day to do it. Some of the Imams have said that it is permissible after that during the day or even the night. For this reason I see that it is not absolutely necessary that everybody slaughters on the first day because there will be a lot of crowding at the site of the slaughtering. So, it is possible that some people can delay their slaughtering until the second or third day.
What is the Proper Animal for Slaughter?
Camels, cows, sheep and goats are the proper animal to use for slaughtering because they are considered livestock (anaam). So it is permissible to slaughter from any of these types. The sheep can be used for onea, meaning a man and the members of his household. As the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “This is on behalf of Muhammad and his family.”
Abu Ayyub has said, “During the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) a man used to slaughter one sheep for himself and his family until it came to the point that people competed with each other and they became what you now see.” This is the Sunnah.
As for cows and camels, 1/7 of either of them is sufficient for one person, so it is possible that 7 people could share one camel or one camel or one cow with the condition that the cow is not less than 2 years old or the camel less than 5 years old.
The better the quality of the animal that is used for slaughtering, with regards to its size and condition, the better. That is because it is a gift to Allah, Mighty and Majestic. Therefore, it is befitting for the Muslim to present to Allah the best possible thing. As for one giving to Allah what he himself would dislike, then no, this is not appropriate. But in the end, “It is not their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, rather, it is the piety of the hearts that reaches Him.”
Makkah friday khutbah By: ‘Abdur Rahmaan Sudais
Slaves of Allah! You are approaching virtuous days; they are the best days as the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said in an authentic hadeeth: “The best days in this life are the (first) ten days of Thual-Hijjaha. Furthermore, Allah swore by them in His Book, and when Allah swears by something, it is a reflection of its great importance. Allah says that which translates to: “By the dawn. And the nights of the ten daysa (Al Fajr:1-2). These are the first ten days of Thual-Hijjah and they include the day of `Arafah, about which the Prophet Sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “There is no day in which Allah frees more of His slaves from The Fire than the day of `Arafaha (Muslim). These ten days are concluded by the day of An Nahr (sacrifice); then follows the day of Al Qarr. The Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “The greatest days in the scale of Allah are the days of An Nahr and Al Qarra (Abu Daawood). The day of An Nahr is the major day of Hajj and the day of `Eid; the day of Al Qarr is the following day. Virtuous deeds have a magnified position during these days. The Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “There are no days in which righteous deeds are more beloved to Allah than the (first) ten days of Thual-Hijjaha (Ad-Daarimi), in another narration the companions asked: “Not even Jihaad for the sake of Allah?a he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “Not even Jihaad for the sake of Allah, except for a man who loses (sacrifices) both his wealth and life in a battlea (Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Ibn Maajah, At-Tirmidhi)
What great virtues and what a great season! What an opportunity this is to collect greater rewards than that of Jihaad, which is the best deed after sound belief and punctual salaah. This season represents a wonderful opportunity for those who want to compete in collecting rewards and a miserable loss for the idle, who shun such opportunities.
Slaves of Allah! Compete for and rush towards the forgiveness of Allah and paradise which is as wide as the heavens and earth and do not slacken and be unhurried, because the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “Being laid-back is best in every matter except for good deedsa (Abu Daawood & Al-Haakim). One must compete and march forward when it comes to working for the hereafter as Allah says that which translates as: “… So for this let the competitors competea (Al Mutaffifeen:26) and also, “.. So race to (all that is) good… (Al-Baqarah:148).
In this season, the roads leading to goodness are numerous, so do not miss out on any of them. The intelligent ones are those who exhaust themselves during this season to gain abundantly; you see many of them joining their days with their nights, continuously doing righteous deeds and hardly sleeping in order to get the most out of this season. On the other hand, you see those who put all their efforts into the attainment of worldly gains. The sad fact is that the result of all this effort would be, at most, the doubling of their capital – if indeed they do not actually lose it. As for the wise believers, nothing is dearer to them than increasing their efforts and righteous deeds that please the Lord, get them closer to Him and elevate their ranks; Allah told us what pleases Him in His Book and through His messenger; Allah will guide those who truly wish for goodness (if He Wills).
Salaah is one of the ways leading to goodness and something that Allah loves. The slave must be keen to perform it in congregation as Allah says that which translates to: “…And bow (in rukooa) with those who bowa (Al Baqarah:43), and the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said, “He who hears the Athaan (call for Salaah) and does not respond, his Salaah is not accepted, except with the congregation, unless he has a (valid) excusea (Ibn Maajah) The excuse is either fear, sickness or rain.
A slave of Allah who is guided would supply himself with optional salaah in these ten days, because it is a path to goodness and something that Allah loves. Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “Salaah is the best thing that one can do, so perform as many as you possibly cana (At-Tabaraani) and he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said: “Two light rakaaat which you may think as insignificant to add to you deeds, is better for you than possessing the whole worlda (Ibn Al Mubaarak) he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said, as narrated by Abu Hurayrah, “The son of Aadam could not do anything more beneficial for himself than salaah, reconciliation (between Muslims) and being well mannereda (Al Bayhaqi and others).
These were three examples of good deeds that lead to righteousness, salaah, reconciliation and being well mannered which are better than anything else that the son of Aadam can do, yet you see some people slight the performance of obligatory salaah, let alone optional salaah; you see them instigating disputes between people; and you see ill-mannered people who have lost out on the great reward for having a good character. So let us repent to Allah from our sins, reform our situation and improve our manners.
A woman was praised in the presence of the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam for her salaah, fasting and other good deeds; her only flaw was that she harmed her neighbours. Upon hearing the praise, the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “She is from the people of the Firea (Ahmad). In reality, the guided ones are those who do all those things which please Allah and refrain from all those things that cause His wrath, as some of the scholars said: “Wisdom is to perform what you are obliged to, in the correct manner and on time; he who is granted wisdom has attained a great deal of gooda.
Some of the Ahaadeeth which mention the virtues of optional salaah are as follows: “Prostrate as much as you can, because whenever you prostrate, Allah elevates your rank by a degree and wipes out a sin from your recorda (Muslim) and in another narration: “Whenever a slave prostrates to Allah, Allah writes a reward for him, wipes out one of his sins and elevates his rank by one degree; so prostrate as much as you cana (Ibn Maajah). The way to perform salaah is as the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam described: “The night salaah is done two (rakaaat) at a timea (Al Bukhaari) and in another narration: “The optional salaah at night and during the day is done two Rakaah at a timea (Ahmad, Ibn Maajah and others).
Slaves of Allah! Another of the paths to righteousness and fields of competition is reciting the Quraaan. The Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “The best amongst you are those who learn the Quraaan and then teach ita (Al Bukhaari) he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said: “He who recites a letter from the Book of Allah will get a reward and each of these rewards will be multiplied ten times. I do not mean `Alif Laam Meema is one letter, but rather `Alifa is a letter, `Laam is a letter and `Meema is a lettera (At Tirmidhi) and he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said: “If one of goes to the masjid and learns a verse or reads two verses from the Book of Allah, is better for him than owning two she-camels, (reading) three are better than (owning) three, (reading) four are better than (owning) four and so ona (Muslim) and also, “Let him who wants to attain love for Allah and His messenger read from The Book of Allaha.
Another of the fields of goodness is fasting as the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam encouraged us to “Fast on Mondays and Thursdaysa (Ahmad & Nasaaai) and “Fast the day of `Arafaha (Muslim) also: “Fast like the Prophet Daawood (who fasted every other day)a (Bukhaari & Muslim). I do not know of any specific reference that relates to any special virtue for fasting these ten days in particular, but, having said this I would add that one should still fast during these days because of the general texts encouraging good deeds during these ten days.
Another way is giving in charity; `Abdur Rahmaan Ibn Saburah, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “(Every day) An Angel calls out in the heavens saying, `O Allah! Bless and compensate for the wealth of the one who spends (for your sake) and ruin the wealth of the one who holds back (from spending)aa (At-Tabaraani) Also he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said to Bilaal, may Allah be pleased with him: “Spend (charitably) O Bilaal! – and do not fear that Allah will decrease your provision (due to your spending)a and he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam addressed Asmaaa, may Allah be pleased with her, saying: “Spend (charitably) and donat count (i.e. donat be cautious in spending in this manner) otherwise your provisions will become limited and donat hold back (from spending in charity) otherwise your provisions will be held backa (Bukhaari & Muslim) The Messenger of Allah sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said: “I swear that these three things are true: That giving in charity does not decrease the wealth of the slave ……..a (Ahmad & Tirmidhi). Giving in charity enables one to be among the seven categories of people who will be protected under the shade of the Throne of Allah; regarding this, the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “… and a man who gave charity so secretly that even his left hand would not know how much his right hand had spenta (Bukhaari & Muslim) also, “Charity given in secret extinguishes the wrath of Allaha. One of the best forms of charitable giving is to give someone a drink of water as the Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “The best form of charity is giving someone water (to drink)a (Ahmad, An Nasaaai and Ibn Maajah).
O slaves of Allah! One of the best deeds in these days is to initiate Hajj as a way of drawing closer to Allah and fasting the day of `Arafah for those who are not performing Hajj. Allah willing we will talk about the virtues of Hajj in another Khutbah. Offering a sacrificial animal is also one of the most virtuous deeds that one can perform. The Prophet sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “He who does not offer a sacrifice while being financially able to, let him not come close to our masjid (i.e. pray with us)a and he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam also said: “When the ten days (Thual-Hijjah) have begun and one of you intends to offer a sacrifice, then let him not cut any of his hair or remove anything from his skina (Muslim) in another narration he sallallahu `alaihi wasallam said: “Let him not cut anything from his hair or nails until he sacrificesa (Ad Daarimi).
These are examples of virtuous deeds, so take advantage of them; beware of laziness and neglect and know that Allah has favoured certain seasons over others, so let us take advantage of these opportunities and increase our righteous deeds; perhaps Allah will forgive us for our sins and shortcomings.