Mother’s Day – a Historical Overview and the Scholars’ Rulings on this Holiday

As-Salamu `Alaykum,

Today I came across a very good article explaining the Historical Overview of Mother’s Day and the Scholars’ Rulings on this Holiday. This is not a Friday Khtubah but I hope this would help you to come up with your own khutbah, InshaAllah.

wa `Aleykum As-Salaam

Praise be to Allaah and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told us that his ummah would follow the previous nations, the Jews, Christians and Persians, but this was undoubtedly not praise for their actions, rather it is by way of condemnation and a warning. It was narrated from Abu Sa?eed (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ?You will certainly follow the ways of those who came before you, handspan by handspan, cubit by cubit, until even if they entered the hole of a lizard, you will do so too.? We asked, ?O Messenger of Allaah, (do you mean) the Jews and the Christians?? He said, ?Who else?? (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3269; Muslim, 2669).

It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ?The Hour will not begin until my ummah follows in the footsteps of those who came before it, handspan by handspan, cubit by cubit.? It was asked, ?O Messenger of Allaah, like the Persians and Romans?? He said, ?Those are the people??

(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6888)

The ignorant among this ummah, and the innovators and heretics have followed the previous nations, the Jews, Christians and Persians, in their beliefs, ways, manners and dress. Our concern here is to point out in these days their following and imitation of them through the innovation of ?Mother?s Day? or ?Family Day?, which is a day that the Christians innovated to honour mothers, or so they claim. This then became a day that was venerated, when government departments would be shut and people would get in touch with their mothers or send them gifts and loving messages. But when the day was over, things would go back to the way they were, with people being cut off from their mothers and disobeying them.

What is strange is that the Muslims would feel a need to imitate them in such ways, when Allaah has commanded them to honour their mothers and has forbidden them to disobey them, and has made the reward for that (for obeying them) the highest status.

Continue Reading Mother?s Day ? a Historical Overview and the Scholars? Rulings on this Holiday.

The Blessings and Sunnahs of Eid ul Adha

Yawm al-Arafat: The day of Arafat

The 9th day of Dhul-Hijjah is the day of Arafat. It is this day when the pilgrims gather on the mountain plain of Arafat, praying and supplicating to their Lord. The day of Arafat holds great importance in Islam since this is the Day when Allah completed his revelation on His Messenger (SAW).

It is reported in the Sahhayn (i.e. Sahh al-Bukhar and Sahh Muslim), from Umar Ibn al-Khattab (RA) that a Jewish man said to him:

O Amr al-Muminn (O head of the Muslims)! There is a verse in the Qur`an, which if was revealed on us, the Jews, we would have taken that day as an Eid (festival). Umar asked: Which verse? He said:

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” [Surah al-Maidah (5): 3]

Umar (RA) said: “We know on which day and in which place was this verse revealed to Allah’s Messenger (SAW). It was when he was standing in Arafat on a Friday.”

Arafat is the day on which Allah took the covenant from the progeny of Adam (alaihis-salm), it was reported that Ibn Abbas (radhi Allahu anhu) narrated: The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu alaihi wa-sallam) related:

(When Allah created Adam (AS) Allah took covenant from him in a place Na’man on the day of Arafat, then He extracted from him all the descendants who would be born until the end of the world, generation after generation, and spread them out in front of Him in order to take a covenant from them also. He spoke to them face to face saying:

“Am I not your Lord?”

And they all replied: “Yes, we testify to it”. Allah then explained why He had all of mankind bear witness that He was their Creator and only true God worthy of worship. He said:

“That was in case you (mankind) should say on the Day of Resurrection, ‘Surely, we were unaware of this. We had no idea that You, Allah, were our Lord. No one told us that we were only supposed to worship you.”

[(Sahah by Shaikh al-Albana in Silsilah al-Ahadath as-Sahahah vol: 4, no: 1623]

Fasting on the day of Arafat

Fasting on the day of Arafat is a true blessing and a means of great forgiveness for all who undertakes it and there is no doubt that we should all try our best to fast on this blessed day which is Tomorrow (Sunday the 7th)

In the UK Sehri ends (20 mins before Fajr starts) at 5.55 am and Iftar will be at sunrise at 3:51 pm.

The Prophet (saw) says: “Be content with the fact that Allah will expiate for your sins for a whole year before the day of Arafat and the year after the day of Arafat”! [Saheeh Muslim]

“There is no day on which Allah frees more people from the Fire than the day of Arafat. He comes close and expresses His pride to the angels saying, ‘What do these people want?” [Saheeh Muslim]

However whoever is at Arafat as a pilgrim then fasting is not expected of him as the Prophet (SAW) stopped at Arafat to eat.

Yawm an-Nahr:

The tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah is the greatest day of Hajj. It is known as Yawm an-Nahr (the day of Sacrifice), since it marks the ending of the major rite of Hajj – the Sacrifice. And it is on this day that the Muslims commemorate the bounties and blessings of Allah. It was recorded in a Hadath by Imam Ahmad (in his Musnad vol: 4, no: 350) that the day of Nahr is the most virtuous day to Allah. The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:

“The greatestday of Hajj (Pilgrimage) is the Day of an-Nahr (Slaughtering).” [(Sahah) by Shaikh al-Albana in Irwa al-Ghalal (no: 1101). Abu Dawad no: 1945]

Imam Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728H) said:

“The most excellent day of the week is the day of Jumuah (Friday), by the agreement of the Scholars. And the most excellent day of the year is the day of an-Nahr. Some of them said that it is the day of Arafat. However, the first opinion is the correct one, since it is related in the Sunan collections that the Prophet (SAW) said:

“The most excellent days with Allah is the day of an-Nahr, then the day of al-Qarr (the day that the Muslims reside in Mina).”

[(Sahah) by Shaikh al-Albana in Irwa al-Ghalal (no: 2018). Related by Abu Dawad no: 1765].” [Majma al-Fatawa vol: 25, pp. 288]

The day of An-Nahr is also known as ‘Eid al-Adha’ meaning the festival of Sacrifice and it is one of the two festivals which Allah has granted to the Ummah of Prophet (SAW). Anas (RA) narrated, Allah’s Messenger (SAW) came to Medina and the people of Medina in the days of Jahiliyyah had two days of play and amusement. So, Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said:

“I came to you and you had in Jahiliyyah, two days of play and amusement. Allah has replaced something better for you. The Day of an-Nahr and the day of al-Fitr.” [(Sahah) by Hafidh Ibn Hajr in Bulagh al-Maram. Related by Musnad Ahmad vol: 3, no: 103]

The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said:

“The day of al-Fitr, and the day of an-Nahr, and the days of at-Tashraq (the three days after an-Nahr) are our days of Eid (festivity); and they are days of eating and drinking.” [(Sahah) by Shaikh al-Albana in Sahah al-Jama (no: 8192). Related by Musnad Ahmad (no: 1945)]

Glorifying Allah with Takbar: (Takbar al-Muqayyid):

From the day of Arafat until the Asr prayer of the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah, one should make Takbar after every obligatory Salat. Ibn Aba Shaybah relates that Ala (RA) used to make the Takbar beginning after the Fajr prayer on the day of Arafat, until after the Asr prayer on the last day of at-Tashraq. [(Sahah) by Shaikh al-Albana in al-Irwa. Related by Ibn Aba Shaybah in al-Musannaf]

Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

“The most correct saying concerning the Takbar – that which the majority of the Salaf (Pious Predecessors), and the Scholars from the Companions and Imams were upon – is to begin making the Takbar from Fajr (dawn) on the day of Arafat up until the last day of at-Tashraq (the thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah), after every Prayer.” [Majma al-Fatawa (24/220)]

Imam al-Khattaba (rahimahullah) (d. 456H) said:

“The wisdom behind saying the Takbar in these days is that in the times of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic ignorance), they used to slaughter for their Taghats (false objects of worship). So the Takbars were prescribed in order to indicate that the act of slaughtering is directed to Allah alone, and by mentioning only His Name.” [Fath al-Bara]

As regards to the actual wording of the Takbars, then nothing authentic has been related from the Messenger of Allah. However, the following have been reported from the Sahabah:

1. Ibn Mas’ad (RA): Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illa Allah, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa lillahil-Hamd. [(Sahah) Irwa al-Ghalal (650), Daraqutne, Ibn Shaibah]

(Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, There is none worthy of worship except Allah. Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest and to Allah belongs all praises)

2. Ibn Abbas (RA): Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa lillahil-Hamd; Allahu Akbar wa-ajal, Allahu akbaru ala mahadana.

[(sahah) – Bayhaqa (3/315)] (Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest and to Allah belongs all praises. Allah is the Greatest to that which He has guided us to)

3. Salman (RA) : Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar kabara.

[(sahah) – Bayhaqa (3/316)] (Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest)

“Increase in these days with Tahlil, Takbar and Tamhid. (Takbar al-Mutlaq). And mention the name of Allah on the appointed Days.” [Sarah al-Hajj (22): 28]

This verse has been explained (by some) to mean the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. Scholars consider it desirable to increase Dhikr (remembrance of Allah) in these days, because the Messenger of Allah (SAW) is reported to have said:

“There are no days that are greater to Allah or in which deeds are more beloved to Him than these ten days, so increase your Tahlil, Takbar and Tamhid during these days.” [Musnad Ahmad]

Tahlil, Takbar and Tamhid mean saying ‘La ilaha illa Allah’, ‘Allahu Akbar’ and ‘al-Hamdu lillah’, respectively.

Ishaq narrates from the scholars of the Tabi’an that in these ten days they used to say: Allahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar; La-ilaha-ill-Allah; wallahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar; Wa-lillahil-hamd.

It is a beloved act to raise the voice when saying the Takbar in the markets, the houses, the streets, the masjids and other places, because of the saying of Allah Most High in Sarah al-Hajj verse 37:

“…that you may magnify Allah for His Guidance to you…”

Imam Bukhara (rahimahullah) said in the book of al-Idayn in the chapter of the Virtue of good) deeds during the days of Tashraq, Ibn Umar and Abu Hurayrah (RA) would go out in the marketplace during the ten days and say Takbar, and the people would say Takbar when they said Takbar. [Sahah al-Bukhara]

The Sunnah is to say the Takbar individually. The saying of Takbar in congregation, i.e., everyone pronouncing the Takbar with one voice, is not permissible since this has not been transmitted (to us) from the early generations of the Sahabah and those who followed their ways. This is applicable for all Dhikr and supplications, except if the person doesn’t know what to say. In that case he may repeat after someone else until he learns (the words to be said).

Narrated al-Bara (Allah be pleased with him) that he heard the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) delivering a khutbah saying: “The first thing to be done on this day (first day of Eid-ul-Adha) is to pray; and after returning from the prayer we slaughter our sacrifices (in the name of Allah), and whoever does so, he has acted according to our sunnah. (Kitaabul-Eidayn, Bukhari)

Eid-ul-Adha is celebrated on the 10th through 12th day of Dhil Hijjah, the 12th month of the lunar calendar. Many of the rituals related to the Eid directly commemmorate the sacrifices of Hadrat Ibraham (alayhis-salaam) and his family for the sake of Allah. On the way to the Eid prayer, while waiting for it and on the way back from the prayer one should recite the following takbeer as much as possible:

Allaahu akbar – Allaahu akbar – Laa ilaaha illallaahu – wal-laahu akbar Allaahu akbar wa lil-laahil-hamd

(Allah is the Greatest; Allah is the Greatest; There is no god except Allah; And Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest and for Allah is all praise.)

It is the tradition of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) to go to the prayer by one way and return by another. The takbeer-e-tashreeq above is also to be recited after every fard prayer beginning from the Fajr prayer of the 9th to the Asr prayer of the 13th of Dhil Hijjah (23 times in all).

The following actions are also sunnah on the day of Eid:

  • To clean the teeth with miswaak;
  • To take a bath;
  • To adorn oneself and dress in the best clothes that are available and are permitted in Shariaah;
  • To use perfume;
  • To rise early and go to the prayer grounds early;
  • To walk to the prayer grounds if possible and to recite the takbeer above;
  • Nothing is to be eaten before the prayer of Eid-ul-Adha, unlike Eid-ul-Fitr;
  • No (nafl) prayers should be prayed at the Eid prayer ground, neither before or after the Eid prayer.

Procedure of the Eid Prayer

Eid-ul-Adha prayer consists of two rakaaah in congregation. The procedure of the prayer is as follows:

First, make the niyyah for the Eid salaah:

Nawaytu an usallee rakaatayil-waajibi salaata eidil-adhaa maaa takbeeraatin waajibatin

(I intend to pray 2 rakaaah of waajib prayer of Eid-ul-Adha with the (extra) waajib takbeeraat )

Then the Imam says Allahu akbar (and the followers do so after him). Then the hands are folded as in other prayers and the thanaa is recited:

Subhaanakal-laahum-ma wa bi hamdika wa tabaarakas-muka wa taaaalaa jad-duka wa laa ilaaha ghairuk

(O Allah! Glory and Praise are for You, and blessed is Your name, and exalted is Your majesty; and there is no god except You.)

Then Allahu akbar is said 3 times, every time raising the hands to the ears and dropping them except the last time when they are folded. Then the Imam recites the Taaawwudh and Bismillah quietly and then recites Surah Fatiha and another Surah. Then rukua and sujood are performed as in other prayers. In the second rakaaah, the Imam recites Bismillah quietly and then Surah Fatiha and another Surah loudly and then says Allahu akbar 3 times, each time raising the hands to the ears and dropping them. Then Allahu akbar is said a fourth time and the congregation goes into rukua and finishes the prayer as any other. After the Eid prayer is completed, the Imam stands up and gives two khutbah in Arabic, sitting between them, as was the practice of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam).

An alternate method of performing twelve extra takbeeraat during the prayer, instead of the six extra that are described above, is also permissible: 7 and then 5 extra takbeeraat are performed during the first and second rakaaah respectively (Umdatus-Saalik, Shafia madhhab).

Selected Traditions from Sahih-al-Bukhari: The Chapter of the Two Eids.

-> Narrated Aisha (Radiyallaahu anhaa) that Allahas Messenger (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) said: “There is an Eid for every nation and this is our Eid.”

-> Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (Radiyallaahu anhu) that Allahas Messenger (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) used to offer the prayer of Eid-ul-Adha and Eid-ul-Fitr and then deliver the khutbah after the prayer.

-> Narrated Ibn Abbaas (Radiyallaahu anhu) that the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) said: “No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these (first 10 days of Dhil Hijjah).” Then some companions of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) said, “Not even jihaad?” He replied, “Not even jihaad, except that of a man who does it by putting himself and his property in danger (for Allahas sake) and does not return with any of those things.”

-> Narrated Jaabir ibn Abdullah (Radiyallaahu anhu): On the day of Eid, the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) used to return (from the prayer) through a way different from that by which he went.

-> Narrated Urwa on the authority of Aisha (Radiyallaahu anhaa) that on the days of Minaa (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhil Hijjah) Abu Bakr (Radiyallaahu anhu) came to her while two girls were beating the tambourine and the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) was lying covered with his clothes. Abu Bakr (Radiyallaahu anhu) scolded them and the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa sallam) uncovered his face and said to Abu Bakr, “Leave them, for these days are the days of Eid and the days of Minaa.”

The Slaughter:

According to Imam Abu Hanifah, the slaughtering is a wajib. For Abu Hanifah, a wajib is more than a sunnah and less than a fard. The other Imams consider a wajib to mean fard (obligatory).

Therefore, he sees that it is wajib for those people who are capable to do it according to the hadith, “Whoever has the ability to slaughter and he doesnat, then let him not come near our prayer area.” So Abu Hanifa took from this hadith that it was a wajib. If we canat consider it as a wajib, at least it is a sunnah muakkadah and in it is a great bounty.

Its time of occurrence is after Salat al-Eid, meaning the earliest salat ul-Eid that has been performed in your area. After which, it is permissible to make the sacrifice. If it is done before that, it is not considered an Eid sacrifice.

For the Prophet (blessings of Allah and peace be upon him) commanded the one who performs the slaughtering before the Eid prayer to consider his sheep as a “sheep of meat” and not as a “sheep of worship”. Even if he gave all of it in charity he will only be rewarded for it the reward of charity, not the reward for slaughtering for the Eid. For slaughtering is a an act of worship and the acts of worship if they have a fixed time and condition then it is not befitting for it to be performed early or late, like the daily prayers. Is it permissible for you to pray Dhuhr before its appointed time? So it is with the slaughtering of the Eid, it has its specified time too.

Some people in certain places slaughter the night before the Eid. This is incorrect and a misplacement of the Sunnah, as well as a loss of the reward that it contains. If this person realizes his mistake in time, especially if he made a vow to slaughter (then it is obligatory for him), he should repeat it in the correct time after the Eid prayer. It is also permissible to slaughter on the second and third days of the Eid.

It is best to slaughter before the sun reaches its zenith. If the time for Dhuhr comes and he has not performed the slaughter it is better to wait till the second day to do it. Some of the Imams have said that it is permissible after that during the day or even the night. For this reason I see that it is not absolutely necessary that everybody slaughters on the first day because there will be a lot of crowding at the site of the slaughtering. So, it is possible that some people can delay their slaughtering until the second or third day.

What is the Proper Animal for Slaughter?

Camels, cows, sheep and goats are the proper animal to use for slaughtering because they are considered livestock (anaam). So it is permissible to slaughter from any of these types. The sheep can be used for onea, meaning a man and the members of his household. As the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “This is on behalf of Muhammad and his family.”

Abu Ayyub has said, “During the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) a man used to slaughter one sheep for himself and his family until it came to the point that people competed with each other and they became what you now see.” This is the Sunnah.

As for cows and camels, 1/7 of either of them is sufficient for one person, so it is possible that 7 people could share one camel or one camel or one cow with the condition that the cow is not less than 2 years old or the camel less than 5 years old.

The better the quality of the animal that is used for slaughtering, with regards to its size and condition, the better. That is because it is a gift to Allah, Mighty and Majestic. Therefore, it is befitting for the Muslim to present to Allah the best possible thing. As for one giving to Allah what he himself would dislike, then no, this is not appropriate. But in the end, “It is not their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, rather, it is the piety of the hearts that reaches Him.”

The Aadaab of Jumu’ah

The Aadaab of Jumuah

  1. Every Muslim should make preparations for jumuah from Thursday. After the asr salaat of Thursday, he should make a lot of istighfaar. He should clean his clothes and keep them ready. If he does not have any perfume in his house, then if it is possible he should try and obtain some and keep it ready so that he will not get distracted with these things on jumuah. The pious people of the past have stated that the person to receive the most benefit on Friday will be that person who waits for it and who makes preparations for it from Thursday. The most unfortunate person will be he who does not even know as to when Friday will fall, so much so that he will ask the people in the morning as to which day this is. Some pious people used to go and stay in the jaame musjid from the night of jumuah in order to make full preparations for the following day. (Ihyaa ul-Uloom, vol. 1, page 161)

  2. On the day of jumuah, ghusl should be made and the hair of the head and the rest of the body should be thoroughly washed. It is also very virtuous to use the miswaak on this day.

  3. After making ghusl, a person should wear the best clothing that he possesses, and if possible he should also apply some perfume. He should also clip his nails.

  4. He should try and go very early to the jaame musjid. The earlier a person goes, the more reward he will receive. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

    “On the day of jumuah, the angels stand at the entrance of that musjid in which jumuah salaat is to be offered. They write down the name of the person who enters the musjid first, and thereafter the name of the person who follows, and they continue doing this. The person who entered first will receive the reward of sacrificing a camel in the path of Allah, the one who followed him will get the reward of sacrificing a cow, thereafter a chicken, thereafter the reward of giving an egg as charity in the path of Allah. Once the khutbah commences, the angels close the register and begin listening to the khutbah.”
    — (Bukhari and Muslim)

    In olden times, the roads and alleys used to be extremely busy in the mornings and at fajr time. All the people used to go so early to the jaame musjid and there used to be such a large crowd that it used to look like the days of eid. Later, when this habit was given up, people began saying that this is the first innovation in Islam. After writing this, Imam Ghazali rahmatullahi alayh says:

    “Aren’t the Muslims ashamed of themselves that the Jews and Christians go so early in the morning to their synagogues and churches on Saturdays and Sundays. Those who are businessmen go so early to the bazaars in order to do their buying and selling. Why dont the Muslims do the same?”

    The reality of the situation is that the Muslims have totally reduced the value of this blessed day. They do not even know what day this is, and what a high status it has. How sad it is that the day which was more valuable than eid in the eyes of Muslims of the past, which Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was proud of and the day which was not granted to the previous nations has become so dishonoured at the hands of Muslims today and it is such a great ingratitude to the favour of Allah Taala that the consequence of all this can be seen with our very eyes.

  5. By going walking for the jumuah salaat, one gets the reward of fasting for one year for every step that he takes. (Tirmidhi)

  6. On Fridays, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam used to recite Surah Alif Laam Meem Sajdah and Surah Hal Ataa, in the fajr salaat. These Surahs should therefore be occassionally recited in the fajr salaat on Fridays. Occassionally they should be left out so that people do not regard their recitation as wajib.

  7. For the jumuah salaat, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam used to recite the following Surahs : al-Jumuah and al-Munaafiqun, or al-Ala and al-Ghaashiyah.

  8. There is a lot of reward in reciting Surah Kahf either before the jumuah salaat or after it. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

    “The person who recites Surah Kahf on Fridays, a nur will appear for him from below the arsh as high as the skies. This light will help him in the darkness of the day of resurrection. And all the sins which he may have committed from the last Friday till this Friday will be forgiven.”
    –(Sharh Sifrus-Saaadah)

    The ulama have written that this Hadith refers to minor sins because major sins are not forgiven without making taubah.

  9. There is more reward in reciting durood on Fridays than on other days. It has been mentioned in the Hadith that durood should be recited abundantly on Fridays.

Source: The Truth : The Aadaab of Jumuah

Friday Khutbah (26 Jan 2007): The Day of Asyura and Its Lessons

The Day of Asyura and Its Lessons

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Brothers,
I would like to call upon myself and my dear brothers, to instill in us taqwa to Allah s.w.t, by abiding all the He has commanded, by following Islam truthfully, and avoiding all that Allah has forbidden. And by doing all that, we pray to Allah that our taqwa will increase and be strengthened further, amen.

May brothers,
This Monday, the Day of Asyura will dawn upon us. Do we know what is the Day of Asyura? It is the tenth day of Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar.

The Day of Asyura is a day of historical significance. Many important events occurred on this day.

It was reported that Prophet Noahâ??s ark came ashore on Mount Judiy on the the Day of Asyura. It was reported also that Prophet Musa a.s was saved by Allah from Pharaoh on this day. And to remind them of this significant event and to glorify the Day of Asyura, the Jews fast on that day.

This tradition of glorifying the Day of Asyura was not limited among the Jews themselves. The Arabs before our Prophetâ??s time also glorified the Day of Asyura.

The Arabs used to change the Kaabahâ??s curtain on this day. They also fasted on the Day of Asyura. In a hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari and Muslim, Rasulullah s.a.w wife, â??Aisyah r.a said:
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Which means: The Arabs used to fast on the Day of Asyura before the command to fast during Ramadan was revealed. They also will clothed the Kaabah on this day.

Brothers,
Is it proper for us to celebrate and glorify the Day of Asyura? To answer it, we must refer to Al-Quran and Sunnah.

Allah s.w.t says in surah At-Taubah, verse 36:
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Which means: Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein, and fight against the idolaters collectively , as they fight against you collectively. But know that Allah is with those who are pious.
It is forbidden to go to war on these four sacred months. It is also encouraged for us to fast many days on these months. The Prophet s.a.w said in a hadith narrated by Ibn Majah:
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Which means: Fast in those sacred months.

The four sacred months are Rejab, Zulkaedah, Zulhijjah dan Muharram. And the Day of Asyura occurs on the 10th day of Muharram.

With regards to the virtues of fasting on Day of Asyura, the Prophet s.a.w said in a hadith sahih narrated by Imam Muslim:

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Which means: I hope that by fasting on the Day of Asyura, Allah will forgive last yearâ??s sins.

This is reward that awaits those who fast with sincerity on the Day of Asyura. And it was reported in a hadith that before the fast in Ramadan was made obligatory, Rasulullah s.a.w told Muslims to fast on the Day of Asyura.

But fasting is encouraged not just on the Day of Asyura per se. In fact, it is also encouraged to fast on the first 10 days of Muharram, and on the 13, 14 dan 15 days Muharram. Allah s.w.t says in surah Al-Fajr, ayat 2:
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Which means: And by the ten nights.

Some scholars of tafsir said that those 10 days belong to the first 10 days of Muharram.

Let us grasp this golden opportunity. We star the new year by showing servitude to Allah. And we hope by doing that, the rest of this year will see us getting closer to Allah.

Brothers,
The command to fast in the month of Ramadan was revealed by Allah on the second year of Hijrah. In the first year, the Prophet s.a.w command Muslims to fast on the Day of Asyura. This is supported be the following hadith narrated Bukhari and Muslim from Ibnu â??Abbas r.a:
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Which means: When the Prophet s.a.w reached Medina, he found that the Jews were fasted on the Day of Asyura. He asked them: What is the significance of this day that you all fast in it? They answered: â??This is the day which Allah s.w.t saved Prophet Musa a.s and his people, and the day Allah drowned the Pharaoh and his army. So Prophet Musa a.s fasted on this day as a sign of gratefulness to Allah.â? The Prophet s.a.w said again: â??We have more rights on Prophet Musa a.s then you allâ?. So he fasted on the day of Asyura, and he commanded Muslims to do likewise.

In the hadith that I recited just now, it is clear that Rasulullah s.a.w did not feel shy to ask from other people about certain matter, event from the Jews. And the Prophet s.a.w did not shy from incorporating what is good in other community to Islam. There are two lessons that can be learned from.

First: We must push aside any feelings of embarrassment and shyness when we are studying and gleaning knowledge from other communities, regardless of race and religion.

Allah s.w.t gives knowledge to whomever He wishes, regardless of race and religion. So one community cannot look down on others. Each community has its own strength and weaknesses. WE learn from strength of other communities to lessen the weaknesses in our community. And if we do this, the racial gap can be minimized.

The second lesson is that we cannot be stingy from sharing knowledge to others, even though they are not of the same race or religion. The Jews themselves did not withhold information from our Prophet s.a.w on their reason for fasting on the Day of Asyura.

Thus, we are required to share with others, especially the non-Muslims, the beauty, purity and simplicity of Islam. This exchange of information will give rise to a worthwhile conclusion. The person either embraces Islam, or they will understand our religion, like we with theirs.

In the end, the community will live together harmoniously because the understanding between the different religions already existed.

These are the two lessons that can be learnt from the story on the Day of Asyura. We cannot shy away from asking for knowledge, and we must not refrain from sharing with others about Islam.

May Allah s.w.t accept our fast on the Day of Asyura, amen.

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Friday Khutbah (26 Jan 2007): Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil: Combining The Foundation and the Methodology

All praise is due to Allah the Lord of the worlds. Peace and blessings of Allah to His Messenger Muhammad, his family and followers until the end of the World.

The foundation

In Islam enjoining good and forbidding evil is one of the duties of a Muslim. Allah said:

You [true believers in Islamic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad SAW and his Sunnah (legal ways, etc.)] are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin Al-Maâ??ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden), and you believe in Allah. And had the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) believed, it would have been better for them; among them are some who have faith, but most of them are Al-Fasiqun (disobedient to Allah – and rebellious against Allah’s Command).

Al Imran (3) 110[1]

In another verse,

Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good (Islam), enjoining Al-Maâ??ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do) and forbidding Al-Munkar (polytheism and disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden). And it is they who are the successful.

Al Imrân (03) Verse 104.

In his Tafsir, Ibn Kathir[2] said: Allah said, (Let there arise out of you a group of people) that calls to righteousness, enjoins all that is good and forbids evil in the manner Allah commanded, (And it is they who are the successful.) Ad-Dahhak[3] said, “They are a special group of the Companions and a special group of those after them, that is those who perform Jihad and the scholars.” The objective of this Ayah is that there should be a segment of this Muslim Ummah fulfilling this task, even though it is also an obligation on every member of this Ummah, each according to his ability Tafsir Ibn Kathir Vol 2 Page 232 (Darussalam English Translation)

The Consequences

This duty is so important such that neglecting on acting upon it is equated with the collective punishment of Allah upon the people, whether they are good or bad if those who are good amongst them neglect to implement it. Imam Bukhari collected a hadeeth narrated By Zainab bint Jahsh:

The Prophet got up from his sleep with a flushed red face and said, “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah. Woe to the Arabs, from the Great evil that is nearly approaching them. Today a gap has been made in the wall of Gog and Magog like this.” (Sufyan illustrated by this forming the number 90 or 100 with his fingers.) It was asked, “Shall we be destroyed though there are righteous people among us?” The Prophet said, “Yes, if evil increased.”

Vol 9, Book 88. Book of Afflictions and the end of the world. Hadeeth number 181[4]

And its fulfillment is connected to our safety:

O you who believe! Take care of your ownselves, [do righteous deeds, fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden) and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)]. If you follow the right guidance and enjoin what is right (Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do) and forbid what is wrong (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden) no hurt can come to you from those who are in error. The return of you all is to Allah, then He will inform you about (all) that which you used to do.

Al Maaidah (5): 105

â?¦and Allah will grant us power in the land:

Those (Muslim rulers) who, if We give them power in the land, (they) order for Iqamat-as-Salat. [i.e. to perform the five compulsory congregational Salat (prayers) (the males in mosques)], to pay the Zakat and they enjoin Al-Ma’ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do), and forbid Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism and all that Islam has forbidden) [i.e. they make the Qur’an as the law of their country in all the spheres of life]. And with Allah rests the end of (all) matters (of creatures).

Al Hajj (22): 41

The Methodology

The methodology of enjoining good and forbidding evil is enshrined in a hadeeth collected by Imam Muslim:

It is narrated on the authority of Tariq b. Shihab: It was Marwan who initiated (the practice) of delivering khutbah (address) before the prayer on the ‘Id day. A man stood up and said: Prayer should precede khutbah. He (Marwan) remarked, This (practice) has been done away with. Upon this Abu Sa’id remarked: This man has performed (his duty) laid on him. I heard the Messenger of Allah as saying: He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand; and if he has not strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his tongue, and if he has not strength enough to do it, (even) then he should (abhor it) from his heart, and that is the least of faith.

Book 1 Faith. Hadeeth No. 79

In another narration:

It is narrated on the authority ‘Abdullah b. Mas’ud that the Messenger of Allah (may peace and blessings be upon him) observed: Never a Prophet had been sent before me by Allah towards his nation who had not among his people (his) disciples and companions who followed his ways and obeyed his command. Then there came after them their successors who said whatever they did not practise, and practised whatever they were not commanded to do. He who strove against them with his hand was a believer: he who strove against them with his tongue was a believer, and he who strove against them with his heart was a believer and beyond that there is no faith even to the extent of a mustard seed.

Sahih Muslim. Book 1. Faith. Hadith 0081.

It is done according to position and authority

‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar had said, “I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, ‘All of you are guardians and responsible for your wards and the things under your care. The Imam (i.e. ruler) is the guardian of his subjects and is responsible for them and a man is the guardian of his family and is responsible for them. A woman is the guardian of her husband’s house and is responsible for it. A servant is the guardian of his master’s belongings and is responsible for them.’ I thought that he also said, ‘A man is the guardian of his father’s property and is responsible for it. All of you are guardians and responsible for your wards and the things under your care.”

Sahih Bukhari Vol 2, Book 13. Friday Prayer. Hadith 018

Implementing the Methodology with Wisdom

Enjoining good and forbidding evil is essentially inviting people to Allah. In this regard, Allah said in the Qurâ??an:

Invite (mankind, O Muhammad) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Inspiration and the Qur’an) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided.

Surah/Chapter 016 – An-Nahl. Verse 125.

Implementing with wisdom means we must make sure according to the best of our abilities that when we enjoin good or forbid evil, the end result would be beneficial. In other words a greater good should be achieved or a greater evil is prevented.

There are many circumstances when we want to do good yet the result is harm. One example is praying the Tahajjud prayer but neglecting to pray the Fajr prayer due to exhaustion. One does not do the voluntary acts of worship in lieu of the Waajib. Because of this one does not pray the Sunnah prayer once the Iqaamah has been announced.

Likewise there are also circumtances where we want to avert harm yet the result is greater harm. To illustrate this point, we will mention the hadeeth narrated by Anas bin Malik in Sahih Muslim:

A Bedouin came and passed urine in one corner of the mosque. The people shouted at him but the Prophet stopped them till he finished urinating. The Prophet ordered them to spill a bucket of water over that place and they did so.

Vol 1 Book 4 Ablutions Hadeeth no. 234

Had the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam did not prevent the people from stopping the man from urinating, that man would have had splashed his urine all over the place, or in peopleâ??s clothings instead of confining it only to the place where he is urinating. Further, abruptly stopping the urination process could have other bad effects to a personâ??s health. Thus a greater harm was prevented by allowing some lesser harm to occur.

Ask Allahâ??s help

There is a Sunnah prayer called Istikhaara prayer. One is supposed to perform this prayer if he/she is going to decide on something.

Finally enjoining good and forbidding evil should be done for the sake of Allah alone. Further it should be done according to the way of the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam.

We ask Allah that if we perform this obligation, we will be from those who are rewarded and be those whose scale of good deeds in the Judgment Day is heavy.

Narrated By ‘Amr bin Al-‘As: That he heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “If a judge gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is correct (i.e. agrees with Allah and His Apostle’s verdict) he will receive a double reward, and if he gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is wrong, (i.e. against that of Allah and His Apostle) even then he will get a reward.”

Summary Muslims are required to enjoin good and forbid evil. Its implementation and neglect are linked to our success and failure respectively. Its effectuation is done with wisdom and according to oneâ??s authority. Finally it is Allah who grants success.

[1] All Qurâ??anic quotations are taken from islamsoft solutions. Downloadable free from http://www.islamtomorrow.com/
[2] A Great Scholar of Qurâ??an interpretation. http://www.tafsir.com/
[3] A Great Scholar amongst the early generations of Muslims.
[4] All Hadeeth quotations are taken from islamsoft solutions.

Source: albangsamori